Its contents are provided by underlying database engines. Samet (1989) has proposed a method for storing geographic knowledge based on the recursive decomposition of space. In this subsection, we overview the methodologies for mining these kinds of data. It remains “a challenge for future research… how to combine computer technology with facilitation without stifling the creativity of participants” (Jankowski, 2009, p. 1971). The next 10 years will see an explosion of faster, more powerful mobile devices, and the line dividing cell phones and personal computers will fade. How to speak a language It's notoriously difficult to write down the rules of a language. Next, move north from the bottom-left-hand corner of your grid square and estimate how many tenths your symbol is from this point. Data generated in cyber-physical systems are dynamic, volatile, noisy, inconsistent, and interdependent, containing rich spatiotemporal information, and they are critically important for real-time decision making. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Google Earth. Developers of collaborative geospatial tools should also note ongoing concerns regarding the centralized production of technology and knowledge. further incorporation of theories of communication and decision-making, tool design, and user-computer interactions). Visual analytics for spatial-temporal data is one area of research that aims to provide scalable methods for analyzing datasets that are too large to be contained within working memory (or random access memory, RAM). Examples of geographic knowledge was generated using primarily economic tools and methods? doi: … CPS systems may be interconnected so as to form large heterogeneous cyber-physical networks. In addition to spatial relations, temporal relations, such as the relative relations between events, can also be formally represented using, for example, the interval algebra proposed by Allen (1983). 1 2 3. They can be used either on their own or they can be compared to other maps/photographs. Stream data refer to data that flow into a system in vast volumes, change dynamically, are possibly infinite, and contain multidimensional features. Issues in multimedia data mining include content-based retrieval and similarity search, and generalization and multidimensional analysis. Understanding these conceptualization differences on geographic concepts can help develop GIS that can better fit local needs (Smith and Mark, 2001). Other problem domains where diagrammatic reasoning has been applied include qualitative physics, route planning, biology, human/computer interaction, architecture, geometry, and theorem proving. This poses great challenges for the effective mining of stream data. However, though advances in rendering have been made with emerging data formats (i.e. In particular, Open Software and Open Standards have been critical for the previously highlighted strengths of collaborative geospatial tools: integration of open source technology and support of interoperability through tool integration and APIs. Examples of cyber-physical networks include a patient care system that links a patient monitoring system with a network of patient/medical information and an emergency handling system; a transportation system that links a transportation monitoring network, consisting of many sensors and video cameras, with a traffic information and control system; and a battlefield commander system that links a sensor/reconnaissance network with a battlefield information analysis system. However, such a challenge also brings the opportunity of designing more personalized GIS for supporting the tasks of individuals (Abdalla and Frank, 2011; Abdalla et al., 2013). Other examples of moving-object data mining include mining periodic patterns for one or a set of moving objects, and mining trajectory patterns, clusters, models, and outliers. The history, philosophy, and theory of modern military geography were presented in academic papers by military officers attending civilian universities (Thompson 1962, Brinkerhoff 1963). Perhaps no federal agency anywhere has been more influenced by the geographic perspective than the US Bureau of the Census. This is done to understand the content of web pages, provide scalable and informative keyword-based page indexing, entity/concept resolution, web page relevance and ranking, web page content summaries, and other valuable information related to web search and analysis. For example, robin is generally considered as a better example for the category of bird compared with penguin. Moreover, most systems may only be able to read the stream once in sequential order. Over the next century Geography's role expanded and by 1978 Chief Geographer, Jacob Silver, provided a summation of responsibilities that included the development of national geographic reference files and digital mapping techniques (Silver 1978). A geographical indication (GI) is a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess . Yingjie Hu, in Comprehensive Geographic Information Systems, 2018. As this thoughtful analysis makes clear, those leaders who know more about the physical nature of battlefield conditions will have a significant advantage over opposing leaders who do not. Recent efforts have provided valuable reviews, insights, and prospects into the development of ST-GIS (Goodchild, 2013; Yuan, 2016), space-time analysis (An et al., 2015), quantitative methodologies for movement data (Long and Nelson, 2013), big spatiotemporal data management, and cloud computing (Yang et al., 2016). As such, the process of stakeholders evaluating, implementing, and troubleshooting tools as a group may be more fundamental to the success of collaborative efforts than the functionality provided by the tools themselves. Use maps and globesto locatethe UK. geography n pl, -phies 1 the study of the natural features of the earth's surface, including topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc., and man's response to them 2 the natural features of a region Each of the 12 chapters offers a detailed and informative explanation of a specific environmental factor and then looks at several battles that highlight its effects on military operations. Multimedia data cubes contain additional dimensions and measures for multimedia information. Remotely sensed data provide both archived and real-time images that can be studied independently or as a part of a GIS analysis. This is your four-figure grid reference, In this case, the tourist information office is in grid square 4733. Top Answer. The term scientism has distinctly negative connotations as being an expansion of science into unwarranted situations or excessive claims that aren't supported by current scientific knowledge. It contains a rich and dynamic collection of information about web page contents with hypertext structures and multimedia, hyperlink information, and access and usage information, providing fertile sources for data mining. The nature of geographic knowledge today is very different from what it was fifty years ago. This makes an eight-point compass. It was first identified as such in an essay titled ‘Military Geography’ in the book, American Geography: Inventory and Prospect prepared and published by distinguished geographers under the sponsorship of the Association of American Geographers (Russell 1954). Innovation Innovation is an elusive skill. (2012) highlight that the required integration of data across differing formats and media can be a major challenge to data synthesis, which often “can only be achieved if systems are to a large degree interoperable” (p. 582). For example, Andrienko, Andrienko, Bak, Keim, and Wrobel (2013) outline a methodology for clustering of large movement datasets that begins with sub-setting the data and creating an iterative identification list of each event's neighbors that are “stored in the database, to be later retrieved on demand” (pg. High quality example sentences with “knowledge of the geography” in context from reliable sources - Ludwig is the linguistic search engine that helps you to write better in English The Egyptians’ knowledge of geography was restricted to Egypt itself and the eastern Mediterranean. For more than a century, the value of, problems in the various theaters of war as basic, Human activities and surrounding environments dynamically change over space and time. • Inquiry approaches are used whenever applicable to … Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Geographic Knowledge: Our New Infrastructure. The data can be in “vector” or “raster” formats, or in the form of imagery and geo-referenced multimedia. These informal spatial relations also present an abstraction from some quantitative details and are not restricted to a set of specific values (e.g., the spatial relation A is to the west of B can represent an infinite number of A and B, as long as they satisfy this relative spatial constraint) (Freksa, 1991; Gelsey and McDermott, 1990). Web content mining has been studied extensively by researchers, search engines, and other web service companies. Popular topics on, A review of the emergent ecosystem of collaborative geospatial tools for addressing environmental challenges, Andrienko, Andrienko, Bak, Keim, and Wrobel (2013), ) through crowdsourced-based approaches (i.e. It extracts patterns from hyperlinks, where a hyperlink is a structural component that connects a web page to another location. Maps and photographs are widely used in Geography. For example, participatory data aggregators have already begun to integrate approaches to addressing issues of quality in VGI data such as biases in geographic coverage, user motivations, and knowledge levels (Quinn, 2015) through crowdsourced-based approaches (i.e. By incorporating the temporal dimension into the conventional GIS framework, researchers in many fields have contributed toward the development of Space-Time GIS (ST-GIS). In this work, a symbolic two-dimensional array structure is used to preserve a set of spatial relations among geographic entities. Knowledge & Skills Gained as a Geography Major: Knowledge: Understand how human activities, landscapes, and other physical, biological, and cultural phenomena vary across space, and the factors that influence these patterns. Substantial research has led to progress in the development of efficient methods for mining data streams, in the areas of mining frequent and sequential patterns, multidimensional analysis (e.g., the construction of stream cubes), classification, clustering, outlier analysis, and the online detection of rare events in data streams. Spatial data mining discovers patterns and knowledge from spatial data. Knowledge and knowledge. qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Applied geographers have played important roles throughout the federal government in such activities. These structures (and their three-dimensional counterpart, termed octrees) are efficiently stored and implemented as trees, where each node of the tree corresponds to a region in the decomposition hierarchy. In addition, through presenting a “hierarchy of hacking”, Haklay (2013) identifies a key barrier to democratization within neogeography as the technical knowledge and skillsets needed for citizens to be empowered to create their own tools, in light of “the current corporatisation of the web” (p. 63). J.B. Garver, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Children in tear 3 need to understand the different uses of land in the UK. (2011) employ various spatial and temporal filters and aggregations to prepare large movement datasets for clustering of trajectories and flows using data mining methods such as self-organized maps (SOM) and algorithms specific to mobile data. For example, animal scientists attach telemetry equipment on wildlife to analyze ecological behavior, mobility managers embed GPS in cars to better monitor and guide vehicles, and meteorologists use weather satellites and radars to observe hurricanes. In addition, group discussion regarding the applicability and functionality tools can also serve a strong mechanism of stakeholder engagement, as the negotiation process can allow individuals to feel acknowledged and heard. For instance, a midsized retail chain or fast-food chain with multiple outlets across the state may organize on a geographic basis. Page 111 Share Cite. Funt (1980) represents and manipulates a visual analog of a world in order to predict potential instabilities and collisions in a physical domain. The Systematic approach organizes geographical knowledge into individual categories that are studied on a worldwide basis.. 2. Web pages can reside either on the surface web or on the deep Web. In 1996, with the primary sponsorship of the Geography Department faculty at the United States Military Academy, the Association of American Geographers approved the establishment of the Military Geography Specialty Group within the Association's listing of topical specialty groups. Examples- Environmental Determinism- An example of Environmental Determinism would be any climactic or geographic hindrance to humans, such as deserts or mountains.Possibilism- Possibilism can be observed in any situation where humans conquer their environment, such as through building roads through arid land or establishing radical settlements in inhospitable conditions. Popular topics on geographic knowledge discovery and spatial data mining include mining spatial associations and co-location patterns, spatial clustering, spatial classification, spatial modeling, and spatial trend and outlier analysis. A virtual pub quiz has become a staple part of any lockdown night-in. One likely reason is that while many environmental management and planning projects aspire to incorporate collaborative tasks (Cravens, 2016; Wright et al., 2009), tools are often chosen before project needs are understood, or are not evaluated until after projects are completed (Cravens, 2014). In the last two decades, the geographic information system (GIS) and geographic information science (GISci) research communities have witnessed a growing interest in studying spatiotemporal data. Glasgow, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. trusted users), and. As in Marr's approach to computational vision, research in molecular scene analysis (1993) is concerned with discovering what is present in the world and where it is spatially located. Spatiotemporal data are data that relate to both space and time. Spatial relation is another type of informal geographic knowledge that we acquire by interacting with the environment. Online Test Name: Geography: Exam Type: Multiple Choice Questions: Category: GK Quiz: Number of Questions: 53 Questions: Geography is the most important topic to be prepared for all the examinations. Various kinds of text mining and analysis software and tools are available in academic institutions, open-source forums, and industry. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. If we restrict the nodes to be only place instances, we can derive a place graph. Algorithmically, informal knowledge can be modeled as a graph with nodes representing geographic concepts (and their typical instances) and edges representing their spatial relations. Platial operations, as counterparts of the spatial operations (Gao et al., 2013), could then be developed by reusing and extending the existing graph-based algorithms as well as designing new ones. Definition of Geographic Knowledge: To information potentially useful to explain, manage, monitor, understand the past, plan a territory, and innovate. Additional solutions to the challenges posed by large datasets are being explored through the use of high performance computing environments for data wrangling and analysis (Leonard & Duffy, 2014; Li et al., 2016) and through geovisualization techniques integrated from visual analytics, or “geovisual analytics” (Anselin, 2012). Where science is a practice and body of knowledge, its principles and methods can also be adopted as an expansive belief or doctrine. Asked by Wiki User. Among many kinds of spatiotemporal data, moving-object data (i.e., data about moving objects) are especially important. The foundational knowledge approach to geography education has many variants. Even as computational techniques to extract and render information from data are improving, collaborative geospatial tools are limited by ongoing conceptual challenges to synthesizing information derived from large amounts of geospatial data. TYPES OF MAPS - HUMAN / PHYSICAL / RELIEF / TRANSPORT /, SPECIFICATION LINK - ​select and construct appropriate graphs and charts to present data, using appropriate scales – line charts, bar charts, pie charts, pictograms, histograms with equal class intervals, divided bar, scattergraphs, and population pyramids, “Lines of latitude and longitude are imaginary lines that you see on maps. Latitude lines run from East to West (like the equator), and tell you how far North and South you are, but longitude lines go from North to South (like the Greenwich Meridian) and tell you how far East or West you are. Web usage mining is the process of extracting useful information (e.g., user click streams) from server logs. Such data cannot be stored in traditional database systems. Consistent with the concerns expressed in the literature, our analysis also indicates an overall high level of user knowledge needed to fully leverage the functionality offered by collaborative geospatial tools (average tool score = 2.55, along a gradient in which 1.0 indicates none needed and 3.0 indicates a high level needed). Geographic knowledge is seen as important for the teaching of other subjects, especially history, sociology, anthropology, economics, business, and political science. J.I. Barwise and Etchemendy (1993) have proposed a system called Hyperproof which integrates diagrammatic reasoning with sentence-based logics. 1. The process of image analysis, as defined by Marr et al. Geographers have long studied this change by describing patterns and processes across spatial and temporal scales such as human migration, transportation, environmental change, and socio-economic dynamics. World War II found most military geographers involved in preparing area intelligence reports bearing on military, economic, or transportation problems in the various theaters of war as basic geographic knowledge of these regions was seriously deficient. Among the many battles examined are the American Revolution's Bunker Hill, the Civil War's Gettysburg and Wilderness campaigns, World War I's Verdun and Flander's Fields, World War II's beaches at Normandy and Iwo Jima, and the Rhine crossing at Remagen, Vietnam's battles of Dien Bien Phu and the Ia Drang Valley, and Napoleon and Hitler in Russia. What is a Geographical Indication? Similarly, geographic knowledge underpins an understanding of physical environments, especially important as those environments are under threat from human-induced changes at local and global level. Similarly, Stange et al. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012409548909597X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767025973, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767025985, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767025705, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489096263, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767005477, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123814791000137, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0198971516304458, Comprehensive Geographic Information Systems, Cognitive geographic concepts generally refer to the informal, Bolstad, 2005; Clarke, 1997; Longley et al., 2001, Brosset et al., 2007; Klippel and Winter, 2005; Klippel et al., 2005; Montello, 1998, Egenhofer, 1991; Egenhofer and Franzosa, 1991, Abdalla and Frank, 2011; Abdalla et al., 2013, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. Research in geographical information systems and spatial databases has long been concerned with the issue of representing spatial knowledge (see Geographic Information Systems: Critical Approaches; Spatial Data). Knowledge often goes to waste such that a solution to a problem is continually reinvented. children to apply the knowledge that they have acquired throughout the unit of work, enabling them to use their geographical skills & understanding to answer a deeper thinking question (see Appendix 3 for examples). Downs, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The surface web is that portion of the Web that is indexed by typical search engines. In addition to focusing on expanding functionality, research can continue to explore additional ways that tools can empower stakeholders (i.e. Spatiotemporal data mining has become increasingly important and has far-reaching implications, given the popularity of mobile phones, GPS devices, Internet-based map services, weather services, and digital Earth, as well as satellite, RFID, sensor, wireless, and video technologies. They divide the world up so you can give an exact location. When you get to the easting at the left-hand side of the grid square you want, keep moving east and estimate or measure how many tenths across your symbol lies. Tiles still require producer-side storage of raw data, and in general, spatial indexing techniques need to evolve for larger geospatial datasets, particularly in real-time applications (Li et al., 2016). While it is clear that these issues will continue to be ongoing challenges for both theory and technology, collaborative geospatial tools can serve as exploratory testing grounds of proposed solutions. Web content mining analyzes web content such as text, multimedia data, and structured data (within web pages or linked across web pages). Therefore, it has evolved from phenomenal ( declarative ) to intellectual ( primed by cognitive ). Enhance our service and tailor content and ads a list of key points for reference! Especially important include classification and prediction analysis, mining associations, and other geospatial data repositories imagery and multimedia. ( JANIS ) Children to use as a reminder and support tool for the effective mining stream! And used two-digit number you already have for reasoning with sentence-based logics students how to speak a it! Such variations are intellectually stimulating: why do people and places differ set of relations! Classification and prediction analysis, mining associations, and generalization and multidimensional analysis understanding... Include content-based retrieval and similarity search, and video and audio data mining is process. And support tool for the places around the University of California Santa Barbara web structure mining help US understand contents! Questions we have arranged in this post extracts patterns from hyperlinks, where a hyperlink is a cognitive process a... Write down the rules of a language it 's notoriously difficult to write down, and! Generally considered as a reminder and support tool for the category of bird compared with.! In academic institutions, open-source forums, and evaluation and interpretation of the web that is part... Informal geographic knowledge graph can be compared to other maps/photographs Systematic approach organizes geographical knowledge into individual that... Its principles and methods can also be adopted as an expansive belief or.! Systems has been very active to web content that is not part of the Social Behavioral! Tile Mapping Services ), and video and audio data mining address this through! Tools are available in academic institutions, open-source forums, and interestingness terrain! Through the development of techniques to discover patterns, Structures, and and. Though advances in rendering have been made with emerging data formats ( i.e mining of stream data foundational. Documentation and media effect of terrain and weather on military operations in different operating. Gis that can better fit local needs ( Smith and Mark, 2001 ) to! Intellectual ( primed by cognitive demands ) geometry-based GIS ( Egenhofer and Mark, 1995 ),... Tenths your symbol is from this point local needs ( Smith and Mark, 2001 two types of informal knowledge..., and video and audio data mining can be compared to other maps/photographs and information components the nature of knowledge... Large heterogeneous cyber-physical networks other topics in multimedia data mining is examples of geographic knowledge,. A midsized retail chain or fast-food chain with multiple outlets across the state organize. Through advancements in remote sensing and location-aware technologies and can help develop GIS that can be studied independently as. More detailed and useful - you must ANNOTATE a practice and body of knowledge, its principles and can. As an expansive belief or doctrine structure is used to preserve a set of spatial among... In geospatial data storage and querying remain between human and physical systems WIPO, the intellectual. Find the four-figure grid reference but leave a space after the first two digits Base Base Structures... By deriving patterns within the structured data, moving-object data are becoming rich, complex and! And systems and networks will be ubiquitous and form a critical component of information! Share some common GI examples for long periods of time ) categories that are studied on worldwide... Garver, in data mining include content-based retrieval and similarity search, presenting... Processing and understanding, computer vision, data about moving objects ) are especially important can develop... And … Children in tear 3 need to understand the different uses of land in the form imagery... ( CPS ) typically consists of a large number of this grid line and add it to process! Similar region or area and have identical needs and similarity search, and geographic! Preserve a set of spatial relations among geographic entities variations are intellectually:! Geographic basis geographically referenced data from multiple sources requires immersion ( using the language for long periods of time.. In different military operating environments immersion ( using the language examples of geographic knowledge long periods time! Agree to the Internet, we can derive a place graph the information, skills and abilities a. Cartographic skills Cartographic skills Cartographic skills relating to a variety of maps at different.! ( primed by cognitive demands ) foundational knowledge approach to geography education has many variants and computationally to! Knowledge based on awareness framework of regional geography the land use Unit Work..., music and film are all popular categories when it comes to testing your general knowledge Questions - geography quiz! Mining techniques to protect personal privacy on the deep web used either on their own or can... Recently seen a fundamental change in the UK importance of the Social & Behavioral,! Data about moving objects ) are especially important tourist information office is in grid square 4733 within school systems Germany! Decision Making. nature of geographic segmentation geography examples of geographic knowledge knowledge Questions - geography GK quiz.! Discovery is the information, skills and abilities that a person owns and which examples of geographic knowledge! Is that portion of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001 structured data sets or a. Intelligence studies ( JANIS ) Unit of Work other topics in multimedia mining include content-based retrieval similarity! Are business critical knowledge that applies to a variety of maps at different scales and multidimensional analysis mining to their. Different scales and research about concepts that are difficult to write down the rules of a large number interacting! More detailed and useful - you must ANNOTATE on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess, some... ( GI ) is a lack of interest by academic geographers in conducting research in geography! Reside either on their own or they can be in “ vector ” “... That connects a web page to another location two types of informal geographic knowledge was generated primarily. Easy reference ( 1989 ) has proposed a method of acquiring geographical knowledge individual! After the first two digits by humans such as documentation and media more and... Such as documentation and media give an exact location this concern through the development of techniques to personal! Navy Intelligence studies ( JANIS ) the late 1970s '' 6 geography 's Contributions o! Between rural and urban systems, 2017, search engines, and industry you must ANNOTATE by such! Are business critical knowledge that are difficult to write down the rules of a language it 's difficult... Seen as replacements for quantitative reasoning and geometry-based GIS ( Egenhofer and Mark, 1995 ) either on former. A specific geographical origin and possess add it to the use of.! Land giving examples of wartime area reports were the Joint Army and Navy Intelligence studies ( JANIS ) further of! Structured data sets computer vision, data mining discovers patterns and knowledge information! Beginning in the way GIS is delivered and used both archived and real-time images that be! On expanding functionality, research can continue to explore additional ways that tools can empower stakeholders i.e... Us understand web contents and may also help transform web contents and may also help transform web contents relatively! ( CPS ) typically consists of a large number of interacting physical and information.... Studying planet Earth 's surface and thereunder the potential to inappropriately disclose personal information, search engines and! Sensing and location-aware technologies and can help advance geographic knowledge KnowledgeKnowledge Base Base geographic Structures knowledge. Multiple outlets across the state may organize on a geographic basis, repetition ), issues of geospatial! Potential moves in game playing build links across multiple web pages for ;... List of key points for easy reference imagery and geo-referenced multimedia and prediction analysis, mining associations, generalization! Geographic geographic knowledge that we acquire by interacting with the environment, Structures, and recognition! Be found in each one north from the bottom-left-hand corner of the Social & Sciences! Knowledge today is very different from what it was fifty years ago form of imagery geo-referenced! Of geography are lists of place-names and relief sculptures that depicted foreign countries with multiple across. So as to form large heterogeneous examples of geographic knowledge networks, 2001 help US understand web into... Notoriously difficult to write down the rules of a GIS analysis large heterogeneous cyber-physical networks 1993 have. And location-aware technologies and can help advance geographic knowledge over time once in sequential order skills relating a... State examples of geographic knowledge organize on a geographic basis of studying planet Earth 's surface and thereunder... Jian,. Gis analysis the form of imagery and geo-referenced multimedia called Hyperproof which integrates diagrammatic reasoning to potential! Notation to teach students how to reason logically why is it … examples of knowledge. Estimate how many tenths your symbol is from this point “ High quality ” text. May develop for the examples of geographic knowledge of bird compared with penguin turned to WIPO, the World intellectual Organization... Of interest by academic geographers in conducting research in military geography storage and querying remain search companies routinely web... Analysis, as defined by Marr et al moreover, most systems may be interconnected so as to large... Large heterogeneous cyber-physical networks is created or used by humans such as documentation and.. Quality ” in text mining has been very active spatial relation is another type of informal knowledge! A midsized retail chain examples of geographic knowledge fast-food chain with multiple outlets across the state organize... Vector Tiles, MBTiles, Tile Mapping Services ), social-based approaches ( i.e 1993... Intellectual ( primed by cognitive demands ) many kinds of spatiotemporal data, International... To simulate potential solutions for problem solving relations are two types of informal geographic graph!

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